Eurasian water milfoil thrives on fertile, fine-textured, inorganic sediments. An opportunistic species, the plant prefers water bodies that receive nitrogen and phosphorous-laden runoff, like a farm or agricultural pond. Growth explodes when water temperatures rise, which promote multiple periods of flowing and fragmentation or when pieces of the plant grow roots and develop new plants. The good news is that you can find myriad products to manage this invasive species.
How to get rid of it: Manage and Removal - NH Invasive Species: Milfoil
Once established, they can be quite difficult to get rid of, depending on the species. For example, cattails develop thick, extensive rhizome mats in the ground that are similar to roots. New cattails sprout from these even if the old ones have been cut, making this particular foe a difficult adversary if allowed to grow too long and establish widespread rhizome mats. Others, like algae , are necessary in small quantities due to being at the base of the aquatic food chain, but if left unchecked can cloud the water, lead to oxygen deprivation also known as hypoxia , or potentially kill organisms in extreme cases. Phragmites , a tall reed grass, is invasive and able to exceedingly efficiently overtake large areas quickly, partially due to them also possessing rhizome mats. If not controlled, these various organisms can choke out your pond, ultimately harming your fish, other plants, and water quality. They can even spread beyond your pond, and move into natural rivers and lakes where they often lead to the collapse of ecosystems when not managed properly.
Eurasian watermilfoil won't spread rapidly into areas where other plants are established. Eurasian watermilfoil Myriophyllum spicatum is a pesky aquatic weed that rarely germinates by seed but can re-establish itself from fragments or pieces. It is adapted to U. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 2 to 10 and is considered invasive from Florida to Canada.
Some exotic species of milfoil are very aggressive, displacing native species. Eurasian milfoil is an exotic invasive submersed perennial. It reproduces both vegetatively and, less commonly, sexually seeds. Rhizome division, budding and fragmentation are examples of vegetative reproduction.